Employee Leave of Absence in Ecuador

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According to Ecuadorian law employees are entitle to 8 legal leaves of absence, as detailed below:

LEAVE OF ABSENCE REASON DURATION
Maternity Birth of a child (general rule) 12 weeks
Multiple birth 10 additional days
Child with disability or serious congenital diseases. 3 additional months
Paternity Birth of a child 10 days
Multiple birth or cesarean section 15 days
Premature children or in conditions of special care 8days additional
Birth of a child with a disease: degenerative, terminal, irreversible or with severe disability (75% or more) 25 days
In the event of the mother’s death during childbirth or while on maternity leave, the father is entitled to enjoy all, or as appropriate, the remaining part of the period of leave corresponding to the mother Up to 12 weeks
Unpaid leave for childcare After maternity or paternity leave employee may request a unpaid leave to care for the newborn 9 months in addition to maternity or paternity leave
Adoption Adoptive parents are entitled to a leave from the date the child is legally delivered to them. 15 days
Illness Medical rest for common or occupational illness Indeterminate
Child Illness Care for  hospitalized child or with  degenerative disease 25 days (annually)
Family leave for death Death of the spouse, common-law partner, relatives up to 2nd degree of consanguinity or affinity to the worker 3 days
Education Employees with more than 5 years in the company that obtain a scholarship for studies abroad, in fields related to work activity, will be entitle to a leave of absence.

* Applies to employers with 15 or more employees and the number of scholarship holders does not exceed 2%.

Up to 1 year, entitled to payment for 6 months.

Maternity and sick leave are subsidized by IESS, under the following conditions:

  • In case of maternity leave, IESS requires that the affiliate maintain at least 12 continuous contributions prior to childbirth and that the employer has not registered arrears during the mentioned period. In these cases,  IESS will pay the employee a cash allowance of 75% of the average remuneration the last 3 contributions paid to IESS, for the period of 12 weeks (the remaining 25% must be covered by the employer).
  • To access sickness allowance, according to the rest ordered by the physician, the affiliate must maintain at least 6 continuous contributions prior to the month in which the disability occurred and the employer must not register arrears during that period. If these conditions are met, as of the 4th day of disability, IESS will pay the employee a cash allowance for a period of up to 6 months, in the following proportions: (i) the first 70 days, employee will receive 75% of the average of the 3 last contributions; and, (ii) in the remaining period, 66% of the same average. The employer is only obliged to pay 50% of the remuneration during the first 3 days of disability.

The Labor Code also provides leave for domestic calamity or force majeure. Although the norm is not clear in which situations these types of leave should be granted, it gives the employer the power to qualify and authorize them. In this case, the worker maintains the right to receive his/her remuneration – or a percentage of it – for the duration of the leave.

Upon agreement of the parties, the employer may grant unpaid leave to cover different needs of the employee (e.g. studies abroad).

The main characteristic of this kind of leave is that the employment relationship continues and the employee does not lose his seniority in the company. Since the employee will not be receiving income during the leave, the obligation to make contributions to  IESS is not generated. Therefore, an exit notice must be filed in the Institution’s platform.

 

Marta Villagómez
Senior Associate at CorralRosales
mvillagomez@corralrosales.com

Measures to mitigate the effects of COVID-19 on labor issues

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The arrival of COVID-19, cataloged as a global pandemic, and the measures that Governments have adopted to mitigate its effects, have brought a deep economic crisis that affects directly both employers and workers.

According to ILO’s (International Labor Organization) official data, it is estimated that COVID-19 could cause the loss of 25 million jobs worldwide.

In Ecuador, the President of the Republic declared a state of emergency and suspended on-site labor activities from March 17th to April 12th. This period may be extended according to the development of the pandemic.

Those entities that perform activities within health, safety, airports, financial, food, pharmacies and exporting sectors and its supply chain are authorized by the Government to operate.

Entities belonging to other sectors are able to operate if services they provide and the activities carried out by their workers can be performed from home through “emergency telework”, as the authority has called it.

Some emergency measures have been established with the purpose of protecting employment and guaranteeing the health of workers, but also with the objective of preserving the financial stability of the employer. These measures are described below:

1. Suspension of work maintaining payment rights

For those entities that are required to suspend all or part of their activities as a consequence of the Government’s measures, the following should be considered:

  • Employer must pay its workers during the period on which activities are suspended.
  • Employer and its workers may agree on a payment schedule of the salaries accrued during the period on which activities are suspended.
  • Employer has the right to recover the period on which activities were suspended, increasing the working schedule up to 12 hours a week and 8 hours on Saturdays.
  • If worker does not fulfill with recovery time, employer may deduct from any future salary payments what employee had received during the suspension period.

In order to introduce suspension of work, employer must fulfill the online process implemented by the Ministry of Labor.

2. Reduction of working hours (work schedule)

Employers may reduce the working hours temporarily or permanently and reduce proportionally worker´s remuneration – including teleworkers – under the following scenarios:

  • With worker’s consent

According to article 82 of the Labor Code, it is possible to agree with worker to permanently or temporarily reduce their working hours and their remuneration proportionally. For its implementation, it will be necessary to enter into an addendum to the employment agreement and file such addendum with the Ministry of Labor and the Ecuadorian Institute of Social Security (“IESS”).

  • Without worker’s consent

According to article 47.1. of the Labor Code and Accord MDT-2020-077 issued by the Ministry of Labor, the latter may authorize the reduction of working hours. Such reduction will be mandatory for workers, under the following conditions:

  1. Working hours may not be reduced to less than 30 hours per week.
  2. The measure can be applied for up to 6 months, renewable for an additional 6 months.
  3. Employer contribution to IESS must be paid based on the full remuneration corresponding to 8 hours of work per day.
  4. In the event that during the reduction of the working hours the labor relationship is terminated without cause, severance shall be calculated based on the last monthly remuneration received by worker before the working hours reduction.
  5. If the company generates profits in the fiscal year in which the measure was applied, it will not be entitled to distributing dividends without first paying workers the balance they stopped receiving as a result of the reduction in working hours.

In order to introduce suspension of work, employer must fulfill the online process implemented by the Ministry of Labor.

3. Emergency vacation planning

During the health emergency, employer may require its workers to take any pending paid vacation time. Employer may also agree with its workers for them to take advance vacation time.

4. Work leave with or without payment

Additionally, employers may resort to the following alternatives in order to maintain employment and at the same time preserve the financial status of the company: 

  • Leave without payment

With worker’s consent, a “leave without payment” may be agreed. In order to apply such leave, an agreement must be entered between the parties. Under this alternative, the employment relationship does not end, worker holds his/her seniority in the company.

An exit notice for “leave without payment” must be registered in IESS online system. Therefore,  worker will not be covered by Social Security during the leave period.

  •  Leave with partial payment

With worker’s consent, a “leave with partial payment” may be agreed. In order to apply such leave, an agreement must be entered between the parties. Under this alternative, employer recognizes the worker a percentage of his/her remuneration during the leave period.

Contribution to the IESS will be made on the amount actually paid to the worker, but it may not be less than 50% of the statutory minimum wage (currently US$400.00).

5. Modification of working conditions

Employer and workers may agree on work alternatives established in the existing regulations, due to conditions arising from the COVID-19 pandemic, such as mobility restrictions, preventing infection risks and employer’s financial situation. All these must not imply a waiver to workers’ rights. For example, parties could modify the type of agreement or take health and safety measures such as workers’ remaining in suitable places inside the employer’s facilities, among many others.

6. Termination of the employment relationship

If it is not possible for employer to maintain its workers or part of them, company will be able to unilaterally terminate the employment contracts by paying the corresponding severance determined by law. Government has not established the intangibility of employment contracts due to the pandemic, except for those specific cases already provided by law.

Some lawyers have expressed their opinion that labor contracts may be unilaterally terminated without severance payments under these circumstances due to force majeure (restrictions imposed by the government). We do not agree with these criteria, due to the social nature of labor law, pro operario principle, and consequently, the possible risks employer would assume now and in the future.

Finally, it shall also be considered that workers who lose their jobs due to causes beyond their control and who meet the conditions established by  IESS – 24 accumulated monthly contributions and at least 6 continuous contributions immediately prior to termination – will be able to access “unemployment insurance” for a maximum period of 5 months, once 60 days have elapsed without employment.

 

Marta Villagómez
Senior Associate at CorralRosales
mvillagomez@corralrosales.co